Lipids and heart disease
Your cholesterol test can give you more information that
just the level of cholesterol in your blood. The levels of "good"
and "bad" cholesterol (HDL and LDL) can be measured, as
well as the triglycerides. Knowing the levels of each of these lipids
gives a more accurate assessment of your risk of developing heart
HDL is good, it takes cholesterol out of the artery wall. High levels
of HDL cholesterol can protect against heart disease. The desirable
level is 1.0 or above.
LDL is bad, it can deposit cholesterol in artery walls, which can
lead to blockage and heart attack. Raised levels of LDL cholesterol
are associated with early heart disease. The desirable level is
3.5 or less
Triglycerides or fat are a source of energy, however a high level
of triglycerides can often lead to a low level of good cholesterol
and increase the risk of heart disease. The desirable level is 2.0
The infection with hepatitis B virus can affect people in a number
About two thirds of adults have symptoms such as:
which is when the skin and the whites of the eyes become yellow.
- Fever and
- Stomach pains,
nausea and vomiting
In some cases
it can lead to severely debilitating liver disease and death from
One third of adults and almost all children may have no apparent
symptoms. However often the greatest threat is the risk of complications.
Approximately 10% of adults and 90% of children who are infected
become chronic carriers of the disease. They have no symptoms but
continue to be infectious and my infect other people. They also
have a very high chance of developing chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis
and liver cancer, 10 to 30 years after the initial infection.
To decrease the risk the National Health and Medical Research Council
recommends hepatitis B immunization for all infants and adolescents.